There are several treatments for cancer. These include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgical removal, gene therapy, immunotherapy, and other special medical procedures. Cancer is truly one of the most terrible diseases of mankind, because it often leads to death (in addition to serious symptoms and long-term therapy). With the help of new methods and points of influence, the therapy of tumors of various types, as well as the rate of recovery, have improved significantly. This also applies to chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy has an advantage over radiation therapy and surgery because it is able to reach all organs infected with tumor cells, killing them. In chemotherapy, more than one drug may be used to achieve a synergistic effect. Chemotherapy drugs, also called cytotoxic drugs, inhibit cell metabolism. In particular, fast-growing and dividing tissues are affected. Thus, a person may experience side effects, such as hair loss since not only cancer cells are rapidly dividing. The advantage of healthy body cells, however, lies in their well-functioning repair mechanism, which ensures their regeneration, if they are given sufficient time and the dose of chemotherapeutic agents is adjusted accordingly. Since chemotherapy reaches all parts of the body, it is often used in combination with other treatments.
Indications for chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can be used for many types of cancer: early or late stage, solid tumor (i.e. palpable, as in breast cancer) or blood cancer, primary disease or recurrence.
Often chemotherapy is not the only treatment, but is used in combination with radiation therapy or surgery.
As a rule, not every tumor responds equally well to any type of therapy. For example, surgery is not possible with leukemia (blood cancer). This is where chemotherapy and radiation therapy comes into play. Kidney cancer, for example, either reacts poorly or does not respond at all to radiation.
Specific treatment regimens have been developed for each type of cancer, which the physician should discuss in detail with the patient before starting therapy.
What is chemotherapy used for?
Treatment is used to solve the following main tasks:
- Destructing cancer cells;
- Reducing the size of the tumor before radiation therapy or before surgery;
- Preventing the risk of metastases;
- Reducing the likelihood of recurrence of diseases.
As the main method, chemotherapy is prescribed for systemic malignant tumors that affect the entire body (malignant lymphoma, leukemia, etc.). In other cases, such treatment becomes part of the complex. It is carried out along with surgery and radiation. Procedures can be performed both after the intervention and before it. Special drugs are prescribed according to different schemes. This allows you to increase their effectiveness and reduce the side effects of individual drugs.
Benefits of using the technique in blood cancer
With chemotherapy, special drugs enter the bloodstream, which allows acting systematically on the body, destroying cancer cells and metastases, regardless of where they are located.
The main advantages of the technique include:
- Ample opportunities. Treatment allows reducing the size of the tumor, destroy its cells, preventing the risks of recurrence, remotely affecting metastases, etc.;
- Proven effectiveness of modern drugs;
- Possibilities for influencing tumors of various localizations;
- Destruction of even very small cells that are not yet diagnosed even using the most modern methods.
Types of chemotherapy
- Neoadjuvant. It is prescribed before the intervention in order to reduce the size of neoplasms. This treatment reduces the risk of metastases.
- Adjuvant. It is carried out after surgery and prevents further development of the tumor, and also eliminates its hidden foci. This therapy is relevant for all types of cancer and serves as a preventive measure.
- Induction. It is prescribed for inoperable forms of cancer and has proven effective for increased susceptibility of tumor cells to anticancer drugs.
- Hyperthermic. Such chemotherapy involves exposure of cancer cells to agents with high temperatures. The technique is especially relevant for large tumors (including those in the peritoneum and bone tissues).
- Platinum. As part of the treatment, drugs with platinum are used. The technique is used when other means of therapy are ineffective.
- Targeted. It is carried out using special formulations that act at the molecular level. Chemotherapy allows not only to stop the growth of cells and destroy them but to start the processes of self-destruction in them.
- Sparing. It is performed using the least aggressive drugs, which differ in a relatively small number of side effects. Treatment is relevant for small tumors without metastases.
- High dose. Such chemotherapy is characterized by high doses of the drugs used. It is prescribed mainly for the elimination of lymphomas. The disadvantages of the technique include high toxicity to the patient’s body, a large number of negative consequences and side effects.
- Palliative. It is carried out at the terminal stage of the disease, when the maintenance of the body’s vital functions is ensured, further tumor growth decreases and pain is relieved.
Preparation for chemotherapy
Before starting treatment, you must:
- Try (if possible) to eliminate concomitant pathologies. Otherwise, the patient’s condition may worsen significantly;
- Clear the body of toxic substances. This will increase the effectiveness of taking special drugs;
- Provide protection to the digestive tract, liver and kidneys. For this, a course of special treatment is carried out.
If necessary, complex psychological support is also provided. It allows you to tune in to therapy, which is often not only quite complex but also lengthy. Work with the patient is carried out by psychologists and psychotherapists. The support of loved ones is also important.
How is a chemotherapy drug administered?
The chemotherapy drug can be administered in several ways. The method of administration depends on the type of cancer, the location of the tumor, and the specific drug.
Most often, chemotherapy drugs are administered orally or intravenously. This is called systemic chemotherapy because the drugs are distributed throughout the body. Chemotherapy can destroy cells located away from the main tumor.
- Intravenous chemotherapy – chemotherapeutic drugs are administered intravenously. This is the most common type of chemotherapy for cancer in children.
- Oral chemotherapy – chemotherapy drugs are taken in the form of tablets or solution.
Sometimes the drug is injected into the area of the tumor. An example is the introduction of chemotherapy drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid or abdominal cavity.
How is chemotherapy carried out?
Treatment is always carried out according to an individually selected scheme. It depends on a number of factors, including:
- General current condition of the patient;
- Concomitant diseases;
- Stage of oncological pathology;
- Tumor size;
- Metastases, etc.
The combination of drugs is selected taking into account the achievement of the maximum effect from each dose. At the same time, oncologists offer patients remedies with less severe adverse reactions. This allows you to maintain health and ensure the normal functioning of the body.
How long does therapy last?
The duration of treatment is always determined individually and largely depends on the type of tumor detected and its sensitivity to certain drugs. It is carried out in cycles that last for 14 days.
In this case, the introduction of drugs can be carried out:
- once every 6-8 days;
- once for the entire treatment period.
The duration of one procedure is usually 2-3 hours. The interval between sessions is determined by the selected chemotherapy regimen. The total number of cycles also varies and is usually 4-8. The total duration of treatment is from one month to a year. In some cases, repeated therapy is required to prevent relapse.
Contraindications for chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is not used in the following cases:
- High levels of bilirubin in the blood;
- Organic intoxication;
- Metastases in the liver and brain;
- Extreme exhaustion of the body.
Each course begins only after the necessary diagnostics has been carried out and is prescribed exclusively by an oncologist. Only an experienced doctor can decide whether therapy is possible under certain conditions.
Unfortunately, currently used anticancer drugs in one way or another cause side effects. Basically, these side effects develop in connection with damage to part of the healthy cells of the body. This is due to the fact that anticancer drugs have a detrimental effect mainly on rapidly dividing cells of both tumors and normal tissues. However, healthy cells of the body are more resistant to the action of chemotherapy drugs and retain the ability to recover. Therefore, their damage is usually temporary. At the same time, the speed of their recovery depends on a number of factors, including the general condition of your body, the types of drugs used.
During chemotherapy, healthy fast-growing cells can most often be affected: blood cells that form in the bone marrow, cells of the gastrointestinal tract, oral mucosa, cells of the reproductive system and hair follicles.
The most common side effects of chemotherapy include a temporary decrease in the number of white and red blood cells (anemia, leukopenia), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue. Some cancer drugs can damage cells in the heart, kidneys, bladder, lungs, and nervous system.
In most cases, healthy cells are updated fairly quickly after the end of a course of chemotherapy. However, some effects persist for a longer time (months or even years). Sometimes they stay for life. This happens when chemotherapy damages the heart, lungs, kidneys, or reproductive organs.
Currently, doctors have learned to prevent many side effects or significantly reduce their frequency and strength. For this, special drugs and modes of administration of chemotherapy drugs have been developed.
You must clearly understand that the unpleasant side effects caused by chemotherapy are justified, given its ability to destroy the tumor.
The absence or mild severity of side effects of chemotherapy does not indicate an insufficient effect of treatment. Your body is different, and besides, different medicines have different effects.
Nausea and vomiting
Some cancer medicines can cause nausea and vomiting. Such symptoms may appear immediately after the end of the administration of the anticancer drug or after a few hours. The main reason for this phenomenon is the effect of the drug on the wall of the stomach and the center of the brain, which controls the gag reflex. Some people experience no nausea or vomiting during chemotherapy. Some patients experience mild nausea during treatment. If you develop severe nausea and vomiting, be sure to tell your doctor or nurse. The doctor will prescribe special medications (anti-emetics) that reduce the severity of this side effect. Anticancer drugs often cause severe nausea, and antiemetics are prescribed before the administration of the drugs and during the entire subsequent treatment.
How to reduce chemistry-induced nausea at home
You can alleviate your condition if you follow some rules:
- If chemotherapy causes nausea, try not to eat at least two hours before the drug is given.
- You need to eat more often, but in small portions.
- Eat slowly, chewing your food thoroughly.
- Eat food cold or at room temperature.
- Do not eat sweets, fried and fatty foods.
- Do not drink liquids with meals (liquid should be taken one hour before meals).
- Drink cool, unsweetened juices (apple, grape), mineral water without gas.
- Rest at least two hours after eating, sitting in a chair.
- Try to avoid harsh or unpleasant odors.
- Do not prepare food during chemotherapy.
- While eating, listen to music, watch TV.
- If you feel nauseous, breathe deeply and slowly.
Hair loss (alopecia) is a fairly common side effect of chemotherapy. The frequency and likelihood of this phenomenon developing largely depends on the anticancer drug used. In most cases, hair grows back after chemotherapy is completed.
Hair loss usually begins after several courses of chemotherapy.
If you are receiving chemotherapy, which sometimes leads to alopecia, use mild shampoos, do not dye your hair, comb it with a soft brush, dry it with a hair dryer at a low temperature.
If the medicine used almost always causes hair loss, it is better to cut it short or shave it off altogether and not worry about hair loss every day. If you feel uncomfortable, you can wear a wig, hat, etc.
Side effects related to the skin and nails
During a course of chemotherapy, a person may suffer from skin redness, itching, peeling and dryness. Redness and peeling of the skin are more often observed on the palms and soles of the feet. In addition, nails can sometimes change color and become brittle. These skin changes usually disappear within a few months after chemotherapy ends.
To avoid dry skin, take a hygienic shower or wipe with a soft sponge. Don’t scrub your skin with a washcloth. Do not take hot, long baths.
Wipe the skin with blotting movements. While the skin is still damp, lubricate it with a neutral cream or lotion that does not contain alcohol or perfume.
If you have acne, use antibacterial soaps and creams. Wear gloves when doing housework with detergents or when there is a high risk of skin injury.
Side effects related to blood
Antitumor drugs have a toxic effect on the bone marrow, which produces blood cells (red, white blood cells, platelets).
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are responsible in the body for the delivery of oxygen to organs and tissues.
White blood cells (leukocytes) provide the body’s defense against infection.
Platelets turn blood into clots at the site of tissue damage and thereby help stop bleeding.
Chemotherapy may cause a deficiency of certain blood cells.
The common side effects of chemotherapy are:
- general weakness due to anemia (few red blood cells),
- bleeding (low platelets),
- infections (low white blood cells).
It develops due to the fact that the body does not receive enough oxygen due to a lack of red blood cells in the blood. For the same reason, excessive fatigue, rapid breathing, nausea, chilliness of the hands and feet may occur.
If you have these symptoms, be sure to tell your doctor. You will probably have to take a detailed blood test and, if necessary, get a blood transfusion.
After completion of treatment, the number of red blood cells will gradually recover to the desired level, but during this period you should rest more, temporarily limit vigorous activity, and ensure a balanced diet.
Blood clotting disorder
Most anti-cancer drugs reduce blood clotting. An insufficient number of platelets can lead to bleeding and bruising, which can occur even after minor trauma. During chemotherapy, the number of these important blood cells is constantly monitored. If their level is significantly lower than normal, you will be prescribed special drugs that enhance the formation of new platelets, or donor platelets will be transfused intravenously.
Be sure to tell your doctor if you notice:
- small red dots or bruises on the skin;
- red or pink urine;
- black or bloody stools;
- bleeding gums;
During chemotherapy, immunity is often weakened and the body’s sensitivity to infection increases. The lack of white blood cells in the blood can lead to the fact that even weak pathogenic microbes can cause infection in any organ (skin, oral organs, lungs, rectum, bladder, genitals). Therefore, you should carefully observe personal hygiene and be attentive to any signs of infection.
In order to prevent infectious complications, you should follow some rules of personal hygiene and behavior during the course of chemotherapy:
- Wash your hands several times a day, always before meals, before and after toilet procedures.
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene after each bowel movement.
- When doing housework, be careful not to injure yourself. For this purpose, you can use protective gloves.
- Do not pop pimples, cut or pluck burrs.
- If you have damaged the skin, immediately wash the wound with warm water and laundry soap and disinfect (but not alcohol tincture of iodine).
- Stay away from sick people with colds, viral infections, and children who have recently been vaccinated against measles, polio, mumps, and rubella.
- Avoid large crowds (shops, public transport).
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to avoid infection. Therefore, you need to know its main symptoms.
Signs of infection:
- increased body temperature;
- cold symptoms (cough, runny nose, sore throat);
- increased sweating;
- burning sensation when urinating;
- unusual vaginal discharge and itching.
If you are receiving anticancer drugs through a venous or arterial catheter, monitor your condition carefully. If you experience any discomfort, pain, or redness at the insertion site, tell your nurse or doctor immediately.
Only a doctor must deal with infectious complications of chemotherapy. Do not take antibiotics or other medications on your own.
Anticancer drugs can cause sore, dry, swollen, and bleeding gums in the mouth. With prolonged use of chemotherapy, multiple dental caries may develop. There are many microorganisms in the oral cavity, and the mucous membrane is often injured, so local infections easily occur during chemotherapy.
If you follow some rules, you may well avoid or reduce the likelihood of oral problems.
- Treat or remove diseased teeth before undergoing chemotherapy.
- Buy a new soft toothbrush.
- Wash your toothbrush thoroughly after use and store it in a dry place.
- Brush your teeth after every meal.
- Use soft, non-irritating pastes.
- If your lips are dry, treat them with a neutral fat or vitamin A oil solution.
If you have pain due to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and gums:
- Eat cold food or room temperature.
- Eat soft foods (baby food, mashed potatoes, cereals, scrambled eggs, cheese, pasta, bananas, applesauce, etc.).
- Soak solid and dry food in liquid beforehand. Add butter, mild gravy, or broth to dry foods.
- Avoid acidic and irritating foods (tomatoes, citrus fruits, marinades).
- Avoid spicy and salty foods.
- Do not drink alcoholic beverages.
- Stop smoking.
- Rinse your mouth after every meal.
- If eating causes severe pain in your mouth, ask your doctor if he or she can prescribe medicine to relieve the pain.
If you have already received chemotherapy that led to inflammation of the oral mucosa, follow these recommendations from the first days of the next course of treatment.
One of the most common side effects of chemotherapy is loose stools. Some anticancer drugs can damage intestinal cells and disrupt the absorption of fluid from the gastrointestinal tract.
You can avoid or reduce the severity of upset stomach and intestines by following a certain diet:
- Avoid high fiber foods (raw and processed vegetables, fresh and dried fruits, legumes, wholemeal bread, cereals, nuts).
- Avoid fried, fatty, spicy foods.
- Eat foods low in fiber (white bread, rice, pasta, eggs, boiled potatoes, lean or chicken meat, fish).
- Do not drink coffee, alcoholic drinks.
- Don’t eat sweets.
- Avoid milk and dairy products.
- Drink plenty of fluids (still mineral water, weak tea, pasteurized apple juice, low-fat broth) to prevent dehydration.
As your digestion improves, you can gradually switch to a regular diet.
If the disorder lasts more than a day or is accompanied by pain, cramps, tell your nurse or doctor immediately. With a very strong disorder, therapeutic measures are necessary (intravenous infusion of saline solutions, special “fixing” drugs).
In some cases, constipation occurs during chemotherapy, the cause of which can be both the effect of the medications taken, and the lack of physical activity in combination with an unhealthy diet. Normally, the chair should be daily or once every two days. If you have constipation, do not self-medicate. Be sure to tell your doctor about this. He or she will prescribe a laxative or cleansing enema.
In order to prevent constipation, you should consume more liquids and foods containing a lot of fiber (raw and processed vegetables, fresh fruits, wheat bread and cereals).
Talk to your doctor about the possibility of taking small walks in the fresh air. If such walks are undesirable, ask what physical or breathing exercises are most suitable for you during this period.
Side effects related to the nervous system and muscles
Although nerve and muscle cells are not rapidly dividing, some anticancer drugs may cause temporary damage to them.
The main symptoms of damage to the nervous and muscular systems are:
- tingling, burning sensation;
- numbness in the arms or legs;
- impaired coordination of movements (loss of a sense of balance);
- hearing loss;
- muscle weakness or fatigue.
Tell your doctor if you have any of the above symptoms.
Most of these phenomena disappear some time after the completion of chemotherapy. However, during their development, you should be more careful when using sharp or hot objects. If coordination is impaired, you should walk more carefully (especially in the bathroom), use handrails and railings, and do not wear slippery shoes.
Kidneys and bladder problems
Some cancer drugs can irritate the bladder and damage kidney cells. In most cases, these effects are temporary. They are most pronounced with the introduction of chemotherapy drugs directly into the bladder. However, kidney damage can also develop with other methods of administering anticancer drugs. Therefore, before each course of chemotherapy, you must check a kidney function.
The main symptoms of these side effects are:
- soreness or burning during urination;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- pink or red urine (some anticancer drugs may simply change the color of urine);
- increased body temperature or chills;
- discomfort or pain in the lumbar region.
If you have any of these symptoms, tell your doctor. He or she will prescribe special treatment or temporarily (if necessary) suspend therapy.
You can reduce the risk of these complications by drinking more fluids (water, juices, coffee, tea, broths). Discuss the amount of fluid you need with your doctor.
Side effects related to the reproductive system
Anticancer drugs can sometimes have a negative effect on the functions of the genital organs.
In men, chemotherapy can cause short-term, long-term and even complete infertility. Because anticancer drugs impair sperm quality, men undergoing chemotherapy should use contraceptives (condoms).
In women, the use of anti-cancer drugs can damage the ovaries and lead to menstrual irregularities or no periods at all. The result of ovarian damage can also be temporary or complete infertility.
It is undesirable to become pregnant during the course of chemotherapy, as some anti-cancer drugs can cause birth defects in the child. Therefore, it is advisable for women of childbearing age to use contraceptives during the entire course of treatment. If a woman is diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy, chemotherapy can be delayed until the baby is born. But if it cannot be delayed, the doctor may recommend starting chemotherapy after the 12th week of pregnancy, when the fetus is not at high risk. In some cases, termination of pregnancy may be considered.
After completion of treatment, the question of the timing of a possible pregnancy should be discussed with your doctor.
Another side effect of chemotherapy in women can be itching, burning, or vaginal dryness. These disorders can cause discomfort during intercourse, which can be reduced by the use of vaginal ointments that do not contain fat.
Impact of chemotherapy on feelings and behavior
Cancer and chemotherapy bring many changes to a person’s life. They affect the general state of health, can break everyday plans, create tension in relationships between people. A typical emotional reaction of a cancer patient is depression, a feeling of helplessness, refusal to fight the disease. All these sensations are completely natural and understandable. However, you should not “stop living” in connection with a rather formidable disease. The course of cancer varies from person to person. In addition, currently more than half of patients are cured of cancer.
You can help yourself and doctors in the fight for your health. And the first step you must take is to consciously formulate the reasons why you should live. You must take on this responsibility and set a reasonable goal. The awareness that you have an important task ahead of you will help you endure objective difficulties and subjective troubles. Mind, body and emotions are able to influence their own state and fight for recovery. Life acquires meaning only through striving for a goal. You bear no less responsibility for your life and destiny than doctors. Why not use difficulties to develop strength and courage!
- Try to always think about the main goal of your treatment.
- Try to get as much information as possible about your illness and its treatment. This will help you reduce your fear of the unknown.
- Try to eat well, even if you have no appetite at all. You need a lot of energy for tissue repair. Proper nutrition improves the results of treatment.
- Get exercise whenever possible. It will help you reduce stress, improve mood and appetite. Ask your doctor what kind of exercise is healthy and safe for you.
- There are specific ways in which emotional side effects can be overcome. For more information about these methods, see a psychotherapist.
Blood tests during chemotherapy
Since the injected drugs affect not only cancer cells but also healthy cells (including blood), patients suffer from anemia and other pathological conditions. To control the level of health indicators, laboratory diagnostics are regularly carried out.
Patients take blood tests. As a rule, reduced parameters of leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes are noted. Doctors give recommendations for improving health. Perhaps, you will need to follow special diets, reduced loads, and consume more vitamins and microelements.
In addition, patients are advised to avoid hypothermia, to be less often in public places, and to carefully monitor personal hygiene.
How much does chemotherapy cost?
The cost of treatment depends on a number of factors and cannot be announced without their preliminary assessment.
The price is affected by:
- drugs used;
- duration and number of courses;
- stage and other features of the oncological process.
The most expensive is usually the therapy of tumors of the brain, blood and pancreas. The exact cost can only be calculated by a specialist after evaluating all the important parameters of the upcoming procedures.
Nutrition during chemotherapy
Good nutrition is of great importance during the period of chemotherapy. It should be high-calorie and contain a sufficient amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. Food should be varied (dairy products, meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, bread, etc.). This is necessary to ensure that your body has enough energy to fight cancer and to speed up the recovery of normal tissues. It is very important to prevent weight loss during the treatment period.
During chemotherapy, appetite is usually significantly reduced or completely absent. Sometimes a feeling of nausea joins these phenomena. You need to overcome this and make your own conscious efforts to fight the disease.
If you have no appetite, you can use the following recommendations:
- Eat little and when you feel like it, regardless of the daily routine.
- Add new foods into your diet and always have a small supply of foods you like.
- Talk to your doctor about the possibility and advisability of taking a small amount of alcohol before meals (beer, dry wine).
- Try to create conditions during meals that enhance mood (table setting, relaxing music, chatting with friends and relatives, watching TV, etc.).
- Take a walk in the fresh air before eating, unless your doctor forbids it.
- In between meals, consume kefir, yogurts, juices.
- If you tend to drink large amounts of liquid, try to increase the calorie content of drinks by adding honey, yogurt, milk powder to them.
Life after chemotherapy
After chemotherapy is over, it is very important to periodically check the results of your treatment. Regular check-ups should be carried out. The time of the first follow-up examination will be determined by your doctor. The same specialist, if necessary, will prescribe supportive treatment and rehabilitation procedures.
Below are the symptoms in which you should consult a doctor without waiting for the next examination:
- pain that does not pass within a few days;
- loss of body weight for no apparent reason;
- nausea, diarrhea;
- fever, cough;
- bruises not associated with trauma.
Relationships with relatives and friends
Cancer is not contagious.
Therefore, do not be afraid to communicate with other people, friends and relatives during and after treatment. If necessary, you can invite loved ones for a joint conversation with the doctor.
Your relatives are also stressed because they want to help you and don’t know how to do it. Take the first step yourself. If you talk openly about your illness and make it clear to people trying to help you that there are no “healing” words, they will be able to be more frank with you and will help and support you with great desire and willingness.
Intimate relationships are an important part of a fulfilling life, so you should not avoid them. Cancer is not contagious and cannot harm your partner. If you and your partner have any doubts and fears about this, contact your doctor or counselor and discuss all the issues that concern you both. Many such fears are erroneous. If your relationship before the disease was real, then it will remain so after. Sometimes after the completion of treatment, interest in intimate life decreases. This is mainly due to psychological stress and sometimes side effects of chemotherapy (fatigue and hormonal changes). Only you, together with your partner, can determine what is most acceptable and pleasant for both of you to obtain mutual satisfaction.
Most people cannot continue to work while being treated with anti-cancer drugs. As soon as you feel that your condition allows you to return to professional activities, discuss this issue with your doctor. You can return to your previous job, but only if it is not associated with strenuous physical activity or occupational hazards. You may need to change your regular job or accept a part-time job. As you recover and improve your general condition, you can switch to a normal mode of operation.
Continuing your professional activity will not only reduce the financial difficulties that are inevitably associated with a long illness but also streamline your relationship with the outside world. Illness should not subjugate your own interests and needs.
As soon as chemotherapy is over, you should pay more attention to rest. As you recover, gradually return to your normal physical activity. Take daily walks in the fresh air in the park, in the forest. Pay more attention to communication with children, relatives and friends. Visit theaters and exhibitions. Find yourself some interesting activity that is not related to your work. This will allow you to escape from unpleasant thoughts and not focus on your illness. Consult with a specialist in physiotherapy exercises and a psychotherapist. They will tell you how to overcome stress and recommend a set of physical exercises.