Myeloproliferative Disorder Treatment
Myeloproliferative diseases are a group of blood oncopathologies characterized by pathological division of one or more types of blood cells.
Myeloproliferative diseases are considered a fairly rare pathology of the blood. The frequency of occurrence is 1 case per 100,000 population. The vast majority of patients are people over 40 years old. In men, such diseases are somewhat more common than in women.
Myeloproliferative diseases are characterized by pathological division of a certain type of stem cells, which at the same time retain the ability to differentiate. As a result, one of the gems of hematopoiesis is activated. The clone cell settles in the bone marrow or other organs, divides intensively, displacing functional tissues. This is how extramedullary (extra-spinal) foci of hematopoiesis arise.
Diagnosis of myeloproliferative diseases presents certain difficulties. This is largely due to the non-specificity of the clinical picture, the variety of symptoms and a long “hidden” period.
Suspicions of myeloproliferative pathology arise when significant deviations in the blood picture are detected, especially when immature cells are detected. The patient is prescribed a comprehensive examination, which includes a number of laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostic procedures. The final conclusions are made based on the results of histological and cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow punctate. Specific genetic analyses are widely used in the diagnosis of myelocytic leukemia.
Treatment of myeloproliferative diseases
The tactics of myeloproliferative disease treatment is determined on a personal basis, taking into account the type of pathology, features of the course, age and general condition of the patient.
If the disease is asymptomatic and does not affect the patient’s condition, treatment is not carried out. The patient undergoes regular examinations to monitor changes in the body. With a favorable and stable course, when there are no disorders in the blood coagulation system and infectious complications, supportive treatment is carried out.
Chemotherapy, radiation, targeted and symptomatic therapy are used in the complex treatment of progressive myeloproliferative diseases. Chemotherapy is aimed at slowing down the division or destruction of atypical cells. Targeted therapy involves the introduction of drugs that target atypical cells, while not damaging healthy ones. Radiotherapy is used to suppress the foci of hematopoiesis located outside the bone marrow (most often in the liver or spleen).
Symptomatic treatment is aimed at correcting blood composition, eliminating edema, normalizing blood viscosity, preventing thrombosis, etc.
The only effective way to treat myeloproliferative diseases is bone marrow transplantation. The method is used mainly in young patients who have no contraindications to surgery. Stem cell transplantation is effective in more than half of cases.
A frequently performed surgical intervention for myeloproliferative diseases is splenectomy, or removal of the spleen. Radical measures are usually used when radiation therapy is ineffective.